A few facts about European Languages

Most of the languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. Out of a total population of 740 million, some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language; within Indo-European, the three largest phyla are Slavic, Germanic and Romance, with more than 200 million speakers each, between them accounting for close to 90% of Europeans.

Five languages have more than 50 million native speakers in Europe:German, Russian, French, English and Italian. While Russian has the largest number of native speakers (which is more than 100 million in Europe), English in Europe has the largest number of speakers in total, including some 200 million speakers of English as a second language.

Of c. 45 million Europeans speaking non-Indo-European languages, around 20 million each fall within the Uralic and  Turkic families. Still smaller groups (such as Basque and various languages of the Caucasus) account for less than 1% of European population between them. Immigration has added sizeable communities of speakers of African and Asian languages, amounting to about 4% of the population,[1] with Arabic being the most widely spoken of them.

 

Njerep Language

Njerep (Njerup) is a Mambiloid language spoken in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon. Njerep is a language that is essentially extinct, with only a handful of people who cannot speak it fluently. Although word lists and grammatical information have been collected from these people, the information remains very limited.

Njerep is considered an endangered language under the UNESCO language endangerment index. The study of this language in the early 2000’s shows that there are only six speakers of this language remaining, all of whom live in the Somié village located along the Nigeria-Cameroon border. Of these six speakers, only one can converse in the language. The others ones can only speak it minimally. The youngest person of the speakers was born in the 1940s, and it is not likely that it will survive past the current generation. Njerep is no longer spoken on a daily bacis. Instead, they use it to  maintain  secrecy in conversation. A study in 2007 determined only 4 people spoke this language. They were all elderly people. The Mambila language, also known as Mvop, has instead supplanted Njerep in casual use.

Though the Njerep people currently reside in Somié village, it is widely understood that the Njerep immigrated to that location. Geographically, Somié village is located on the Tikar Plain of Cameroon. The approximately 2,500 inhabitants of Somié are not only Njerep, but also a wide variety of immigrant groups including the Liap, Ndeba, and Mvop people. Though oral accounts of how these groups immigrated to the Tikar plain are often contradictory, it appears that three or four waves of immigration led to the population of this area. It is likely that the Njerep people immigrated to the Tikar Plain from some region of the Adamawa Plateau, possibly from the Djeni Mountain (also shown as Aigue Mboundo on some maps).

Njerep appears to be related to the extinct Kasabe, the extinct Yeni, and the endangered Twendi. Njerep appears to have been mutually intelligible with Kasabe, though not with Twendi.

Njerep falls under the broad classification of one of the Mambiloid languages. Mambila, the largest language in the Mambiloid grouping, has about twenty different dialects, loosely divided into East Mambila and West Mambila dialect clusters. Linguistic analysis suggests that Njerep may fall under the East Mambila cluster. However, it remains contested whether or not Njerep and its related languages should comprise its own unique grouping.

Intense efforts to record and characterize Njerep began in 2000. However, by the year 2000, Njerep had already been in terminal decline for some time. Thus, knowledge of Njerep vocabularies and grammars remains quite fragmentary.[1] Unfortunately, the lack of fluent speakers makes it unlikely that the incomplete record will ever be significantly amended.

 

Pros and Cons of Google Translate

Google Translate has many pros and cons. 

Google’s translation is a huge help in the field of translation intelligence today. Its fast, free, and more precise than other translation tools online.

You may ask well what is the down side of Google Translate? When it comes to conveying all meaning accurately and naturally It can not match human translators.

When it comes to a word or phrase for which it lacks the knowledge for the proper translation , it will not give you the best translation. Google Translate may even output a translation that is unnatural or simply incorrect.

THE PROS

  • Google Translate is extremely fast. It is so fast that no human translator can hope to compete with it at all. A human translator might translate 4,000 words in an 8-10 hour day. But Google Translate can do that in an instant.
  • Google Translate is also free. Google’s translate is absolutely zero cost to its users.
  • Google Translate uses many (but not all) translations are obtained from human translations already online.

THE CONS

  • Google Translate is known to make many errors
  • The quality of Google Translate varies from language pair to language pair. It can be suitable for language pairs such as  English-to-Spanish translation. There are Billions of words found in data network for each language.  That is not the same for Danish and Romanian. Or Turkish and Thai. Translation for rarer language pairs may find this tool useless.
  • It doesn’t offer the user any form of quality control. The search giant’s massive market dominance leads user to implicitly trust its offerings. But a user has no way of knowing whether Google’s German translation of an English text is any good. Simply getting a result—any result—in no way guarantees that the result is good.
  • There is no privacy with Google Translate. For instance, when you upload your text to Google Translate, you’re might as well say saying, “Here Google! You can have all of my private information to store! Please take extra precautions to protect yourself!

HOW DOES GOOGLE TRANSLATE WORK?

Google’s translation tool makes use of the search giant’s stupefying web-crawling capacity to enable its translations. This is different from other rules-based translation tools. Rules-based systems require a lot of work from linguists, not to mention massive digital dictionaries. The result is an attempt at something close to word-for-word translation. Professional human translators know this just doesn’t work.

So what does Google do? Rather than use a rules-based system, Google Translate uses a statistical learning approach. It feeds billions of words (both monolingual text and “aligned” text that humans have translated) into its program. Then it lets the tool find popular matches.

PROS AND CONS OF GOOGLE TRANSLATE: THE VERDICT

So is Google Translate a useful tool? Yes and no. It depends on your needs. A Fortune 500 company would risk its reputation, sales, and breach of any NDA it has signed if it relied only on machine translation. Google translate is not accurate enough to be used in commercial translation, even for short and relatively simple translations of birth certificates.

But a high school student doing a research project may want to use it. It’s good at producing “gist” translations.

Keep the pros and cons of Google Translate in mind when using the tool. The bottom line? It’s good for general, “low-stakes” translation. It’s not for professional use.